Seeking signal in the midst of noise with R

Oftentimes, the sample I deal with is full of noise or confounding factors that I am not interested in. For example, human specimen is doomed noisy because the race, age, sex, occupation, or the life story of the subject would have influenced the results. Careful matching those statistics and increasing sample number would help a lot minimize known confounding factors and have a better chance to cancel other unknown factors, but sometimes sample number is just beyond our control.